First picture Super Jack grown under HPS. One plant 294.84 dry ounces.
Second picture Super Jack grown under MaxYield LED. One plant 643.6 dry ounces.
Potency Delta9 THCA
LED: 19.09% 0.67% 17.66%
HPS: 18.32% 0.48% 17.24%
ALD LED 1.92%
SC Labs conducted the analysis
55% Less energy, 40% less HVAC
BOOK – Oxford University Press
Innovation and Its Enemies: Why People Resist New Technologies
| July 2016
Innovation and Its Enemies:
- Explains the roots of resistance to new technologies – and why such resistance is not always futile
- Draws on nearly 600 years of economic history to show how the balance of winners and losers shapes technological controversies
- Outlines policy strategies for inclusive innovation to reduce the risks and maximize the benefits of new technologies
The rise of artificial intelligence has rekindled a long-standing debate on the impact of technology on employment. This is just one of many areas where exponential advances in technology signal both hope and fear, leading to public controversy. This book shows that many debates over new technologies are framed in the context of risks to moral values, human health, and environmental safety. But it argues that behind these legitimate concerns often lie deeper, but unacknowledged, socioeconomic considerations. Technological tensions are often heightened by perceptions that the benefits of new technologies will accrue only to small sections of society while the risks will be more widely distributed. Similarly, innovations that threaten to alter cultural identities tend to generate intense social concern. As such, societies that exhibit great economic and political inequities are likely to experience heightened technological controversies.
Drawing from nearly 600 years of technology history, Innovation and Its Enemies identifies the tension between the need for innovation and the pressure to maintain continuity, social order, and stability as one of today’s biggest policy challenges. It reveals the extent to which modern technological controversies grow out of distrust in public and private institutions. Using detailed case studies of coffee, the printing press, margarine, farm mechanization, electricity, mechanical refrigeration, recorded music, transgenic crops, and transgenic animals, it shows how new technologies emerge, take root, and create new institutional ecologies that favor their establishment in the marketplace. The book uses these lessons from history to contextualize contemporary debates surrounding technologies such as artificial intelligence, online learning, 3D printing, gene editing, robotics, drones, and renewable energy. It ultimately makes the case for shifting greater responsibility to public leaders to work with scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to manage technological change, make associated institutional adjustments, and expand public engagement on scientific and technological matters.
Innovation and Its Enemies was launched on July 6, 2016, at the 16th International Joseph Schumpeter Society conference in Montreal, Canada. It can be ordered here through Oxford University Press.
Table of Contents:
1. Gales of Creative Destruction
2. Brewing Trouble: Coffee
3. Stop the Presses: Printing the Koran
4. Smear Campaigns: Margarine
5. Gaining Traction: Farm Mechanization
6. Charged Arguments: Electricity
7. Cool Reception: Mechanical Refrigeration
8. Facing the Music: Recorded Sound
9. Taking Root: Transgenic Crops
10. Swimming against the Current: AquAdvantage Salmon
11. Oiling the Wheels of Novelty
The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the accumulation of medicinal compounds in plants
A review is given of how the production by plants of compounds useful as medicines or raw materials for manufacture of medicines is influenced by ultraviolet radiation, particularly by UV-B radiation (280–315 nm wavelength). The compounds considered in this review are flavonoids and other phenolics, alkaloids (especially indole terpenoid and purine alkaloids), essential oils and other terpenoids, cannabinoids, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, and compounds having human hormone activity. A short account is also given of ultraviolet signalling in plants. The review concludes with a discussion of the possible evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the evolution of UV-B regulation of secondary metabolite accumulation.
The 25 Most Innovative AgTech Startups In 2018
The problems facing America’s farmers in 2018 are as diverse as their crop varieties: Labor shortages. Soil health. Food spoilage. Trade wars. Lack of access to data on seed pricing, yield information, and even commodity forecasting.
The good news? There is a veritable army of technologists and entrepreneurs working hard to solve these issues—and an army of investors seeking to fund them. In 2017 alone, ag-tech funding through investment or acquisition increased 32% to $2.6 billion, and half of the top 20 deals in the space exceeded $50 million. One of the year’s highlights included the multi-billion-dollar multinationalDowDuPont DWDP -0.08%’s acquisition of software startup Granular for $300 million.
The bad news? There is now so much money flowing into the space and so many entrepreneurial solutions coming to the market that it’s harder than ever to cut through the noise.
To that end, Forbes has taken to the fields and phones to come up with the top 25 most innovative startups in the ag-tech space. Just as we did last year, we surveyed the agricultural technology landscape by speaking with experts, venture capitalists and accelerators; then we examined financials and each company’s agricultural credentials. A special thanks goes to Seana Day at the Mixing Bowl for her comprehensive research on the ag-tech environment.
MORE FROM FORBES
This year’s list features 12 alumni and 13 newcomers; the high degree of turnover is due in part to mergers and acquisitions, and also to a number of companies making big gains in both technology and dollars.
Here, in alphabetical order, is the fruit of that labor:
AgCode: Founded in 2002, this vineyard management company helps winegrowers track harvests, field conditions and grape maturity in order to maximize yields and manage labor. It also streamlines payroll, budgeting and billing. Ag cred: Seven of the country’s top ten wineries use the platform.
Apeel Sciences: Apeel is extending the shelf life of America’s produce by using lipids from fruits and vegetables to create an extra “peel” for avocados and citrus to slow the rate of spoilage-causing oxidation and water loss. Ag cred: Launched its longer-lasting avocados in Costco and Harps Food Stores earlier in June; counts the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation as one of its earliest backers.
Aquabyte: Teach a man to fish, and you feed him for a lifetime. Teach a computer to farm fish and you might feed the world. That’s Aquabyte’s hope, anyway—it uses computer vision hardware and AI software in fish farms to monitor food consumption, thereby minimizing waste and saving money. Ag cred: Aquabyte has raised $3.5 million with investors including New Enterprise Associates, Costanoa Ventures and Princeton University.
Bext360: Bext360’s blockchain software keeps track of commodities like coffee by identifying and making an electronic token for each one. This unique ID enables the company to trace it through the entire supply chain. By tokenizing commodities, the company is also able to provide payment to farmers up front. Ag cred: The company has raised over $3.35 million to date and is working with partners like Coda Coffee and Great Lakes Coffee.
Bright Farms: This indoor farming outfit aims to help consumers buy local produce by building greenhouses in the communities it serves. So far, this strategy has resulted in leafy greens that take 80% less water, 90% less land and 95% less shipping fuel than lettuce that is grown out west and shipped east. Ag cred: Supplies some of America’s largest grocers, like Walmart, ACME, ShopRite and Giant.
California Safe Soil: The startup with $14.8 million in funding transforms wasted food from supermarkets into a low-cost liquid fertilizer that it sells to farmers in an effort to combat declining arable land worldwide. Ag cred: The company claims the process is 720 times more efficient than composting, which usually takes around three months to complete.
CiBO Technologies: Field trials of new farming techniques are expensive and time consuming, so CiBO is making the process virtual. It uses data analytics, statistical modeling and artificial intelligence to simulate field trials and agricultural ecosystems under different variables, like weather conditions, so farmers, growers and even public policymakers can improve processes more quickly. Ag cred: Raised $30 million in its Series B round of funding for a valuation north of $100 million.
Clear Labs: Former software engineers and genomic scientists launched this food safety startup in 2014 with an aim to help brands make sure their suppliers are selling what they advertised, while also testing for allergens and other contaminants. Ag cred: More than $24 million in funding comes from Silicon Valley elites including Khosla Ventures, Menlo Ventures and Alphabet’s GV.
Concentric: Concentric focuses on making “microbial consortia”—combinations of bacteria and fungi that, when put together, improve crop yields while decreasing the need for fertilizers and pesticides. Ag cred: The company has raised over $64 million to date, from investors such as Pontifex AgTech and TPG Capital.
EIO Diagnostics: The global dairy business loses $10 billion worth of production every year due to undetected udder infections. Young startup EIO Diagnostics is helping catch these infections using multispectral imaging on iPad-like devices that can be handheld or mounted on automated milking machines. Ag cred: It’s a member of the Yield Lab accelerator, which has in its portfolio the likes of Arvergenix and AGERpoint.
Farmer’s Business Network: With a network of more than 6,500 farms that pay to access its database of seed prices, yields and marketing information, FBN is one of the most dominant forces in the ag-tech space. The company is projecting $200 million in revenue this year, nearly three times its 2017 top line. Ag cred: GV, T. Rowe Price and Kleiner Perkins are among the investors that have given FBN nearly $200 million in venture funding. (For more on FBN, see Amy Feldman’s June profile of the company.)
Farmers Edge: This hardware and software startup based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, uses satellite imagery and precision technology to help growers identify, map and manage farmland variability. Ag cred: The company has raised close to $100 million.
FarmLead: The grain trading industry is taking a hit as commodity farmers sign up with FarmLead, an online marketplace for grain that eliminates the need for middlemen like Cargill and Archer Daniels Midland ADM +0.25%. Buyers and sellers can register for free, deals are negotiated anonymously, and broker fees are reduced. Ag cred: Funding tops $7 million; investors includeMonsanto MON +0% Growth Ventures.
FoodLogIQ: 7,000 food companies around the world depend on FoodLogIQ’s supply chain analytics to ensure their products are safe to consume. After securing a fresh $19.8 million in financing from investors (including Tyson Foods TSN -0.44%’ venture arm) in March, FoodLogIQ recently announced a blockchain pilot that will further enhance its traceability technology. Ag cred: Counts Whole Foods, Chipotle, and Subway as customers.
Indigo Agriculture: Using machine learning and data analytics, Indigo agriculture has compiled a database of which types of microbes work best to promote higher crop yields. The company sells seeds coated with those microbes to farmers to improve the health of plants and increase yields. Ag cred: Indigo has raised over $370 million to date.
Pivot Bio: Before the advent of chemical fertilizers, microbes in the soil would provide nitrogen to crops. Using a proprietary process, Pivot has figured out a way to reawaken the genes of those microbes, enabling crops to be fertilized without the need for chemicals. Ag cred: Over the past year, Pivot has doubled the number of employees and expanded its leadership team to include a number of industry veterans.
Plenty: Plenty is an indoor farming company utilizing machine learning, artificial intelligence and crop science to optimize yields and give produce exactly what it needs to achieve optimal freshness and taste. Ag cred: Bezos Expeditions, SoftBank Vision Fund and the Data Collective are among investors that have given Plenty and its vision $226 million in venture funding.
Produce Pay: This supply chain startup with $12.5 million in funding connects wholesale buyers with produce sellers. The platform fixes cash-flow problems by paying for product the day after it is shipped, rather than the typical 30-to-45-day waiting period. Ag cred: ProducePay has provided liquidity to over 200 farmers and 50 distributors, financing over $500 million of produce in its 3 years of operation.
SWIIM: Developed over five years with the USDA, the patented Sustainable Water and Innovative Irrigation Management system monitors water budgets and computes data to help large-scale farms better manage usage. Ag cred: In June 2018, SWIIM acquired Fresno-based OnFarm Systems, a leading Internet of Things data integrator for an undisclosed amount which will give the startup 500 new clients.
Soft Robotics: Soft Robotics is exactly what it says on the tin—the company manufactures robotic arms with soft grippers that can be used to gently handle delicate items like fruits and vegetables in processing facilities. Ag cred: The company has raised over $50 million to date and counts Taylor Farms among its customers.
Taranis: This Israeli precision agriculture company uses data science and learning algorithms to help farmers manage more than 20 million acres. In May, Taranis announced that it was acquiring Mavrx, a leading agriculture aerial imagery provider (and member of the 2017 Most Innovative AgTech startups list). Ag cred: Counts Marc Benioff as an angel investor; later-stage investors that have contributed to its $10 million in funding include Vertex Ventures and Finistere Ventures.
Terviva: An Oakland-based company that is cultivating the pongamia tree, which is native to Australia and India, in Florida, California and Hawaii. The trees produce an oilseed with 10 times more yield than soybeans and have the potential to create a biofuel alternative. Ag cred: Startup has raised more than $20 million.
TL BioLabs: Think “23&Me for cows”—TL Biolabs provides genomic testing of beef and dairy cattle using proprietary microarray technology. It also offers a cloud-based herd management software. Ag cred: The company’s cofounders are Forbes Under 30 alumni, and it has raised nearly $10 million in venture funding to date.
Trace Genomics: This machine learning startup uses genomic sequencing technology to work with farmers to identify pathogens that may be lurking in their soil, providing an advantage in maximizing yields and preventing crop diseases. Ag cred: Trace Genomics has worked with major growers like Driscoll’s, and according to Pitchbook has raised nearly $20 million to date.
Understory: Madison, Wisconsin-based Understory makes weather sensors for farms that collect hyperlocal weather data, particularly hail, wind, precipitation, and temperature. The company’s sensors have no moving parts and are solar-powered. The company also provides a real-time data platform and an API solution. Ag cred: Understory is collaborating with Monsanto, which is using its sensors in test fields in Argentina and Hawaii.
A bipartisan group of lawmakers introduced new legislation that highlights the growing divisions within the Republican Party on the nation’s current patchwork of marijuana laws. The effort to allow states to decide their own marijuana policy potentially pits President Trump, who has voiced support for the state’s right to choose their own policy, against his own staunchly anti-marijuana attorney general. Additionally it highlights the chasm between anti-marijuana GOP leaders in Congress and the growing number of rank-and-file Republicans who are demanding federal protections for their state’s burgeoning marijuana businesses.
After Sens. Gardner and Warren introduced the legislation, advocates called it the “most significant piece of marijuana-related legislation ever.”