Max Yield delivers great yields with 55% energy savings over HPS in Greenhouse
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential to replace high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps as the main delivery method of supplemental lighting (SL) in greenhouses. However, few studies have compared growth under the different lamp types. We grew seedlings of geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), petunia (Petunia ×hybrida), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) at 20 °C under six lighting treatments: five that delivered a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 90 μmol·m−2·s−1 from HPS lamps (HPS90) or LEDs [four treatments composed of blue (B, 400–500 nm), red (R, 600–700 nm), or white LEDs] and one that delivered 10 μmol·m−2·s−1 from HPS lamps (HPS10), which served as a control with matching photoperiod. Lamps operated for 16 h·d−1 for 14 to 40 days, depending on cultivar and season. The LED treatments defined by their percentages of B, green (G, 500–600 nm), and R light were B10R90, B20R80, B10G5R85, and B15G5R80, whereas the HPS treatments emitted B6G61R33. Seedlings of each cultivar grown under the 90 μmol·m−2·s−1 SL treatments had similar dry shoot weights and all except pepper had a similar plant height, leaf area, and leaf number. After transplant to a common environment, geranium ‘Ringo Deep Scarlet’ and petunia ‘Single Dreams White’ grown under HPS90 flowered 3 days earlier than those grown under HPS10, but flowering time was not different from that in LED treatments. There were no consistent differences in morphology or subsequent flowering among seedlings grown under HPS90 and LED SL treatments. The inclusion of white light in the LED treatments played an insignificant role in growth and development when applied as SL with the background ambient light. The LED fixtures in this study consumed substantially less electricity than the HPS lamps while providing the same PPFD, and seedlings produced were of similar quality, making LEDs a suitable technology option for greenhouse SL delivery.